In October 2006 the Northern Territory Government announced the reform of local government areas. The intention of the reform was to improve and expand the delivery of services to towns and communities across the Northern Territory by establishing eleven new shires. The Roper-Gulf Shire was created on 1 July 2008 as were the remaining ten shires. On 1 January 2014, the Shire was renamed to Roper Gulf Region.
Elections of Shire Councillors were held on 25 October 2008.
Most of the area of the Shire was previously unincorporated, but it absorbed several small LGAs on incorporation: